Couple incompatibility is considered to be if a man and a woman have at least two similar HLA genes in their blood. However, it is worth noting that genetically similar parents are rare. This is the reason why sibling marriages are undesirable since partners from the same family have a high probability of HLA gene similarity.
Infertility is one of the most pressing problems of the last decade. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), at least 100 million couples are infertile, and every year this figure is increasing by 10%. Every fifth family in Ukraine seeks help from reproductologists, as they experience difficulties with conception. The causes of infertility may include problems in the reproductive health of a woman or a man or both partners at the same time.
But, more and more often there are cases where the spouses are quite healthy, but the pregnancy either does not occur or is terminated at an early stage. And the main reason for this situation is the incompatibility of the partners.
Couple incompatibility: the main signs and causes
You can identify two main signs of incompatibility and thus understand that we may be talking about this problem.
Namely: conception does not occur for one year, providing a regular sexual life without the use of contraceptives for women under 35 years and 6 months after 35 years, with both partners having no problems with reproductive health;
A pregnancy occurs but stops or is interrupted at an early stage because the mother’s body rejects the fetus for some reason.
There are several major causes of couple incompatibility and whether a woman can not only get pregnant but also bear a long-awaited healthy child depends on how accurately and correctly the doctor determines the cause and method of treatment.
Immunological incompatibility of a couple: peculiarities
Among couples who face the problem of getting pregnant, immunological incompatibility is diagnosed in 10%. In this pathological condition, the female body perceives the male sex cells as foreign and begins to fight them, actively producing antibodies. Thus, sperm cells are killed immediately after entering the genital tract of a woman. Of course, you can not completely rule out the possibility of pregnancy, because sometimes a woman can still get pregnant, but in the vast majority of cases, the outcome is unfavorable. Immune cells in the female body at an early stage of development damage the embryo, causing a spontaneous abortion.
Among the causes of immunological incompatibility are the following:
- weakened immunity of the woman, man, or both partners due to diseases of chronic origin, bad habits. Abortions, gynecological surgeries in a woman in the past also have a negative impact;
- Prolonged use of condoms as contraception;
- Death of germ cells of a man due to allergies to his own seminal fluid;
- an allergic reaction of a woman’s body to the seminal fluid of a certain partner;
- promiscuous sexual contacts in the past.
- Immunological incompatibility can be diagnosed with the help of modern tests.
To treat the immunological incompatibility of the couple, the doctor may recommend the use of condoms for several months in order to reduce the sensitivity of the female body to sperm, taking antihistamines, immunosuppressive medications to suppress immune reactions, treatment with immunostimulants. However, in some cases, the problem can only be solved by in vitro fertilization.
Genetic incompatibility of a couple: peculiarities
In this type of incompatibility, the wrong combination of rhesuses of future parents leads to conflict. The rhesus factor is a combination of protein fractions on the surface of red blood cells (red blood cells). It can either be positive if the antigen is present, or negative if the antigen is absent. Nearly 85% of people are Rh-positive and only 15% are negative. If both partners have the same Rh factor, or the woman is Rh-positive, there will be no problems conceiving and carrying it to term. But in cases where the Rh factor of a woman is negative and the man is positive, only the first pregnancy will be without complications, provided that prior to that woman had no pregnancies, which would have ended in miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or abortion.
When a second pregnancy is planned, the expectant mother’s body will already try to get rid of the embryo, considering it foreign. Determining the incompatibility of a couple by Rh incompatibility is quite simple. To do this, expectant parents should take a blood test, which will help identify the Rh conflict, and the second and subsequent pregnancies should be carefully planned and monitored by a gynecologist, who will regularly check the level of antibodies in the blood.
Nowadays, medicine is developing rapidly and offers solutions to almost any kind of infertility, and partner incompatibility is no exception.